ย 

๐ŸŒน ืžื” ืฉื“ื—ืœื™ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืงืฉ, ืื™ืฉ ืคื— ืชืงื•ืข, ืืจื™ื” ืคื—ื“ืŸ ื•ื™ืœื“ื” ืื—ืช ืงื˜ื ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืœืžื“ ืื•ืชื ื• ืขืœ ืขืฆืžื ื• ๐ŸŒน


ื“ืจืš ื”ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื•ืช

ื”ืงื•ืกื ืžืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืœ ื›ื•ืœื• ืžื˜ืืคื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ื ื›ืชื‘ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืœื™ื™ืžืŸ ืคืจื ืง ื‘ืฉื ืช 1900. ื’ื™ื‘ื•ืจืช ื”ืกื™ืคื•ืจ, ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ื’ื™ื™ืœ, ื”ื™ื ื™ืœื“ื” ื™ืชื•ืžื” ืืฉืจ ื—ื™ื” ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืคื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ ืงื ื–ืก ื™ื—ื“ ืขื ื“ื•ื“ืชื” ืื, ื”ื“ื•ื“ ื”ื ืจื™ ื•ื›ืœื‘ื” ื˜ื•ื˜ื•.

ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื“ื•ื“ื” ืืžื™ ื•ื”ื“ื•ื“ ื”ื ืจื™ ื™ื•ืฆืื™ื ื•ืžืฉืื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืœื‘ื“ื” ื‘ื—ื•ื•ื”, ืžื•ืคื™ืขื” ืกื•ืคืช ื˜ื•ืจื ื“ื• ืืฉืจ ืขื•ืงืจืช ืืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื—ื•ื•ื” ืžื™ืกื•ื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื ื•ืฉืืช ืขืžื• ืืช ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ื•ื˜ื•ื˜ื• ื”ืจื—ืง ืืœ "ืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ".

ื‘ืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ ื”ื™ื ืคื•ื’ืฉืช ืืช ื”ืžื›ืฉืคื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืฆืคื•ืŸ, ืฉืžื™ื™ื“ืขืช ืื•ืชื” ื›ื™ ื”ืื“ื ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ ืืฉืจ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืจ ืื•ืชื” ืœื‘ื™ืชื” ื‘ืงื ื–ืก ื”ื•ื ื”ืงื•ืกื ืฉืœ ืขื•ืฅ, ืืฉืจ ืฉื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ื”ื‘ืจืงืช. ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืžืงื‘ืœืช ืืช ื ืขืœื™ ื”ืงืกื ืฉืœ ื”ืžื›ืฉืคื” ื”ืžืจืฉืขืช ืžืŸ ื”ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื™ื•ืฆืืช ืœื“ืจืš ืœืื•ืจืš ื“ืจืš ื”ืื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืืœ ื”ืงื•ืกื.

ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืืœ ื”ืงื•ืกื ืคื•ื’ืฉืช ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ื‘ื“ื—ืœื™ืœ ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ ื›ื•ืœื• ืงืฉ ืฉืžืฉืืœืชื• ื”ื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืžื•ื—, ื‘ืื™ืฉ-ืคื— ื”ืขืฉื•ื™ ื›ื•ืœื• ืคื— ืฉืžืฉืืœืชื• ื”ื™ื ืœืงื‘ืœ ืœื‘, ื•ื‘ืืจื™ื” ืคื—ื“ืŸ ืฉืจื•ืฆื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื•ืžืฅ ืœื‘. ื”ื ืžืฆื˜ืจืคื™ื ืืœื™ื” ื‘ืชืงื•ื•ื” ื›ื™ ื”ืงื•ืกื ื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœืžืœื ืืช ืžืฉืืœื•ืชื™ื”ื.

ืกื™ื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ืงืกื•ื ืฉืœ ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืžืขื˜ ืžืคืชื™ืข, ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืžื’ืœื” ื”ื›ื•ื— ืœืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ื”ื™ื” ืขื™ืžื” ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš ืืš ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืชื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ืืจื•ืš ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืชื”ื™ื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœืช ืœื’ืœื•ืชื•.

ื”ืงื•ืกื ืžืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉื”ื•ื ื›ืœ ื›ื•ืœื• ืžื˜ืืคื•ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืœื ื•. ื›ืžื• ื‘ืกื™ืคื•ืจ ื›ืš ื’ื ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืื ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ื›ื™ ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœืฉืืœื•ืช ืฉืœื ื• ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืงื•ืกื ื’ื“ื•ืœ, ืืฉืจ ืžืชื’ืœื”, ื›ืžื• ื”ืงื•ืกื ื‘ืืจืฅ ืขื•ืฅ, ื›ืžื ื™ืคื•ืœื˜ื•ืจ ืฉืžื•ื ืข ืžืืชื ื• ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื‘ืขืฆื ื”ืžืคืชื— ืœืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืืœื•, ืžื” ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ืžื” ืœื, ืžื” ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื ื• ื•ืžื” ืœื, ืžื” ืžืงื“ื ืื•ืชื ื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืžื” ืœื ื•ื”ืื ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ืื ื• ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื”ื•ื ื ื›ื•ืŸ ื•ื˜ื•ื‘ ืขื‘ื•ืจื ื• ืื• ืฉืžื ื”ื•ื ืœื, ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ืœื›ืœ ื”ืฉืืœื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืืฆืœื ื• ืคื ื™ืžื” ื•ืื ื• ืœื ื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœื• ืœืื•ืชื• ืงื•ืกื ืืœืžื•ื ื™ ื•ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื’ืœื•ืช ืื•ืชื .

ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ืœื•ืช ืื•ืชืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœืฆืืช ืœืžืกืข ืขืฆืžื™ ื•ืื™ืฉื™ ืขื“ ืฉื ื’ื™ืข ืืœ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ืื ื• ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœื ื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช, ืื• ื›ืžื• ืฉื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืืžืจื” "ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื”".

ืžื” ืื ื—ื ื• ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืžื”ื“ืžื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืคื™ืขื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ืœื”?

๐ŸŒนื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืœ ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžืืชื ื• ืฉืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืžืจื’ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ืงืฉืจ ืœืขืชื™ื“ื• ื•ืžื—ืคืฉ ืืช ืืช ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื” - "ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื‘ื™ืชื”"

๐ŸŒนื”ื“ื—ืœื™ืœ - ืขืฉื•ื™ ืงืฉ ืืžื ื ื”ื•ื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื ืชืœื•ื™ ืขืœ ืขืžื•ื“ ืžื ืกื” ืœืœื ื”ืฆืœื—ื” ื™ืชืจื” ืœื”ืคื—ื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืขื•ืจื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ืงืฉืชื• ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืžื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืฉืชื•ืจื™ื“ ืื•ืชื• ืžื”ืขืžื•ื“ ื•ืชืฆืจืฃ ืื•ืชื• ืœืžืกืข ืฉืœื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืœืงื•ืกื ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื‘ืงืฉ ืžื”ืงื•ืกื ืžื•ื—.

๐ŸŒนืื™ืฉ-ื”ืคื— ืฉืžืจื—ื•ืง ื”ื•ื ื ืจืื” ืืžื ื ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื‘ืœ ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ืฆื™ืจื™ื• ื”ื—ืœื™ื“ื• ื•ื”ื•ื ืชืงื•ืข ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืœื ืžืกื•ื’ืœ ืœืœื›ืช , ื‘ืงืฉืชื• ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืžื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืฉืชืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืฉืžืŸ ืืช ืฆื™ืจื™ื• ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื™ื•ื›ืœ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ื•ืœื”ื ื™ืข ืืช ืขืฆืžื• ื•ืœื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืืœื™ื” ืœืžืกืข ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืœืงื•ืกื ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœื‘ืงืฉ ืžื”ืงื•ืกื ืœื‘.

๐ŸŒนื”ืืจื™ื” ืžืœืš ื”ื—ื™ื•ืช ืฉื›ืœืคื™ ื—ื•ืฅ ื ืจืื” ื›ื›ืœ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืžืชื’ืœื” ืขื“ ืžื”ืจื” ื›ืคื—ื“ืŸ ื•ื’ื ื”ื•ื ืžื‘ืงืฉ ืžื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ืœื”ืฆื˜ืจืฃ ืืœื™ื” ืœืžืกืข ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืœืงื•ืกื ื‘ืžื˜ืจื” ืœืงื‘ืœ ืื•ืžืฅ ืœื‘.

ื”ื“ื—ืœื™ืœ, ืื™ืฉ ื”ืคื— ื•ื”ืืจื™ื” ื”ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ื”ืชื—ื ื•ืช ื‘ื“ืจื›ื” ืฉืœ ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™, ื”ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ื”ื—ืœืงื™ื ืฉืืคืฉืจื• ืœื” ืœืกื™ื™ื ืืช ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื–ื”. ืืœืžืœื ื”ื”ื‘ื ื” ืฉืขืœื™ื” ืœืฆืืช ืœืžืกืข ืฉืœื”, ื”ื”ืจื’ืฉื” ื›ื™ ืื›ืŸ ื”ื’ื™ืข ื”ื–ืžืŸ ื•ื”ื™ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ืช ืœืฆืืช ื•ืœื ื•ืข ืœื›ื•ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ื”ื™ื ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ืื•ืžืฅ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืืช ื”ืฆืขื“ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื‘ืžืกืข, ืืœืžืœื ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ืืœื• ื”ื™ื ื›ื ืจืื” ื”ื™ืชื” ืชืงื•ืขื” ืขื“ ื”ื™ื•ื ื‘ืื•ืชื• ืžืงื•ื ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื” ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื”, ืฆื™ืคื™ื™ื” ืฉืœื ื”ื™ืชื” ืžืชื’ืฉืžืช ื›ื ืจืื” ืœืขื•ืœื.

ืžื•ื— ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ, ืœื‘ ืœื”ืจื’ื™ืฉ ื•ืื•ืžืฅ ืœืฉื ื•ืช ื”ื ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื ื‘ืžืกืข ื”ืื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ืžืืชื ื• ื”ื“ืจื•ืฉื™ื ืœื ื• ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืฆืืช ืžืื–ื•ืจ ื”ื ื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉืœื ื•, ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ืžื–ืžืŸ ืื™ื ื• ื›ื–ื” ื•ืœืขืœื•ืช ืขืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ื”ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื”ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœื ื•, ืœืฆืขื•ื“ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ื‘ื˜ื—ื” ืืœ ืขื‘ืจ ื”ืžืงื•ื ื‘ื• ืื ื• ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ืœื• ื ื•ื›ืœ ืœืงืจื•ื ื‘ื™ืช.

ืจืง ืœืงืจืืช ืกื™ื•ืžื• ืฉืœ ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœื” ืžื’ืœื” ื“ื•ืจื•ืชื™ ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื‘ื™ืชื” ื”ื™ื” ืขืœื™ื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ื‘ื ืขืœื™ ื”ืงืกื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืขืœ ืจื’ื™ืœื” ืœืื•ืจืš ื›ืœ ื”ืžืกืข, ื›ืš ื’ื ืื ื—ื ื• ื ื’ืœื” ื‘ืฉืœื‘ ื”ื–ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื›ื•ื— ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื™ื” ืขืžื ื• ืœืื•ืจื›ื” ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื”ื“ืจืš, ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ื›ื ืจืื” ืœืขื‘ื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื ื”ื™ื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœื’ืœื•ืชื• ,

ืื• ืื– ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ืžืกืข ื”ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืฉื•ื•ื” ื•ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื ื• ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื™ื” ื”ืžืกืข ืฉืœ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•.

๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒน. ืžื•ื–ืžื ื™ื ืœืฉืชืฃ๐ŸŒน๐ŸŒน

ืฆื— ื‘ืŸ-ืฉืžื•ืืœ, ืžืืžืŸ ืื™ืฉื™

ืคื™ืชื•ื— ืื™ืฉื™-ืœืฉื™ื ืืช ืขืฆืžืš ื‘ืžืจื›ื–

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